Clinical Need

Bloodstream Infections are deadly:

  • 270,000 patients died from sepsis (1) (a Bloodstream Infection complication) in the US (2011), a mortality rate = 28% (2)

Bloodstream Infections are expensive:

  • In the U.S., researchers estimate BSIs in hospitals increase costs up to $46,000 per incident (3)

  • Drug-resistant infections could cost the global economy $100 trillion by 2050 (Fortune) (4)

Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) are one of the top causes of death in North America and Europe, (5) With mortality rates as high as 50% for certain bloodstream infections, (6) the continued emergence of drug-resistant pathogens, and fewer anti-infective drugs in development, ExThera Medical sees a critical need to address this growing global health issue.

Once bacteria enter the bloodstream from a local site of infection, they can then be disseminated throughout the body, leading to metastatic complications such as endocarditis, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. If not treated appropriately, uncontrolled infections can lead to a dysfunctional host response. Disease progression may lead to sepsis, septic shock, and ultimately death.

Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae are the most common bacteria responsible for bacteremia and nosocomial infections. Severity of outcome for bacteremic patients depends on both the bacterial load and the duration of bacteremia.

Due to long-term vascular access to the bloodstream, dialysis patients are at high risk of developing bloodstream infections. Fifty percent (7) of BSIs in dialysis patients are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Increasingly, drug-resistant strains of these bacteria, known as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are implicated.

Read the latest on the emerging threats from drug-resistant bacteria in the newly issued report from the Centers for Disease Control: ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE THREATS in the United States, 2013


  1. Rhee C, Dantes R, Epstein L, et al. Incidence and Trends of Sepsis in US Hospitals Using Clinical vs Claims Data. 2009-2014. JAMA. 2017;318(13):1241–1249. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.13836 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2654187

  2. Rhodes, A., Phillips, G., Beale, R. et al. Intensive Care Med.(2015) 41: 1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-015-3906-y https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00134-015-3906-y

  3. Goto, M., and M. N. Al‐Hasan. Overall burden of bloodstream infection and nosocomial bloodstream infection in North America and Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 19.6 (2013):501-509

  4. http://fortune.com/2014/12/12/drug-resistant-infections-could-cost-the-global-economy-100-trillion-by-2050/

  5. Neuner, Elizabeth A., et al. Treatment and outcomes in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease.69.4 (2011): 357-362.

  6. Goto, M., and M. N. Al‐Hasan. Overall burden of bloodstream infection and nosocomial bloodstream infection in North America and Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection.19.6 (2013): 501-509.

  7. D'Amato-Palumbo S, Kaplan AA, Feinn RS, Lalla RV. Retrospective study of microorganisms associated with vascular access infections in hemodialysis patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;115(1):56-61.